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PLoS One. 2011 Feb 3;6(2):e16826. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016826.

Influence of consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal on the physiological cortisol and psychological mood response in men and women.

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1
Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands. s.lemmens@hb.unimaas.nl

Abstract

Consumption of meals with different macronutrient contents, especially high in carbohydrates, may influence the stress-induced physiological and psychological response. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal on the physiological cortisol response and psychological mood response. Subjects (n = 38, 19 m/19f, age =25 ± 9 yrs, BMI  = 25.0 ± 3.3 kg/m²) came to the university four times, fasted, for either condition: rest-protein, stress-protein, rest-carbohydrate, stress-carbohydrate (randomized cross-over design). Stress was induced by means of a psychological computer-test. The test-meal was either a high-protein meal (En% P/C/F 65/5/30) or a high-carbohydrate meal (En% P/C/F 6/64/30), both meals were matched for energy density (4 kJ/g) and daily energy requirements (30%). Per test-session salivary cortisol levels, appetite profile, mood state and level of anxiety were measured. High hunger, low satiety (81 ± 16, 12 ± 15 mm VAS) confirmed the fasted state. The stress condition was confirmed by increased feelings of depression, tension, anger, anxiety (AUC stress vs. rest p < 0.02). Consumption of the high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal did not affect feelings of depression, tension, anger, anxiety. Cortisol levels did not differ between the four test-sessions in men and women (AUC nmol·min/L p > 0.1). Consumption of the test-meals increased cortisol levels in men in all conditions (p < 0.01), and in women in the rest-protein and stress-protein condition (p < 0.03). Men showed higher cortisol levels than women (AUC nmol·min/L p < 0.0001). Consumption of meals with different macronutrient contents, i.e. high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate, does not influence the physiological and psychological response differentially. Men show a higher meal-induced salivary cortisol response compared with women.

PMID:
21304815
PMCID:
PMC3033415
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0016826
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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