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J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011 Winter;23(1):98-106. doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.23.1.98.

Impact of playing American professional football on long-term brain function.

Author information

1
Amen Clinics, Inc., 4019 Westerly Place, Suite 100, Newport Beach, CA 92660, USA. docamen@amenclinic.com

Abstract

The authors recruited 100 active and former National Football League players, representing 27 teams and all positions. Players underwent a clinical history, brain SPECT imaging, qEEG, and multiple neuropsychological measures, including MicroCog. Relative to a healthy-comparison group, players showed global decreased perfusion, especially in the prefrontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and cerebellar regions. Quantitative EEG findings were consistent, showing elevated slow waves in the frontal and temporal regions. Significant decreases from normal values were found in most neuropsychological tests. This is the first large-scale brain-imaging study to demonstrate significant differences consistent with a chronic brain trauma pattern in professional football players.

PMID:
21304145
DOI:
10.1176/jnp.23.1.jnp98
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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