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J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Apr;66(4):409-18. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glq233. Epub 2011 Feb 8.

Salicylate treatment improves age-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction: potential role of nuclear factor kappaB and forkhead Box O phosphorylation.

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Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA.


We hypothesized that I kappa B kinase (IKK)-mediated nuclear factor kappa B and forkhead BoxO3a phosphorylation will be associated with age-related endothelial dysfunction. Endothelium-dependent dilation and aortic protein expression/phosphorylation were determined in young and old male B6D2F1 mice and old mice treated with the IKK inhibitor, salicylate. IKK activation was greater in old mice and was associated with greater nitrotyrosine and cytokines. Endothelium-dependent dilation, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation were lower in old mice. Endothelium-dependent dilation and NO bioavailability were restored by a superoxide dismutase mimetic. Nuclear factor kappa B and forkhead BoxO3a phosphorylation were greater in old and were associated with increased expression/activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and lower manganese superoxide dismutase expression. Salicylate lowered IKK phosphorylation and reversed age-associated changes in nitrotyrosine, endothelium-dependent dilation, NO bioavailability, endothelial NO synthase, nuclear factor kappa B and forkhead BoxO3a phosphorylation, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and manganese superoxide dismutase. Increased activation of IKK with advancing age stimulates nuclear factor kappa B and inactivates forkhead BoxO3a. This altered transcription factor activation contributes to a pro-inflammatory/pro-oxidative arterial phenotype that is characterized by increased cytokines and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and decreased manganese superoxide dismutase leading to oxidative stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction.

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