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Diabetes. 2011 Mar;60(3):726-34. doi: 10.2337/db10-1331. Epub 2011 Feb 7.

Identification of metabolic modifiers that underlie phenotypic variations in energy-balance regulation.

Author information

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Although recent studies have shown that human genomes contain hundreds of loci that exhibit signatures of positive selection, variants that are associated with adaptation in energy-balance regulation remain elusive. We reasoned that the difficulty in identifying such variants could be due to heterogeneity in selection pressure and that an integrative approach that incorporated experiment-based evidence and population genetics-based statistical judgments would be needed to reveal important metabolic modifiers in humans.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

To identify common metabolic modifiers that underlie phenotypic variation in diabetes-associated or obesity-associated traits in humans, or both, we screened 207 candidate loci for regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that exhibited evidence of gene-environmental interactions.

RESULTS:

Three SNPs (rs3895874, rs3848460, and rs937301) at the 5' gene region of human GIP were identified as prime metabolic-modifier candidates at the enteroinsular axis. Functional studies have shown that GIP promoter reporters carrying derived alleles of these three SNPs (haplotype GIP(-1920A)) have significantly lower transcriptional activities than those with ancestral alleles at corresponding positions (haplotype GIP(-1920G)). Consistently, studies of pregnant women who have undergone a screening test for gestational diabetes have shown that patients with a homozygous GIP(-1920A/A) genotype have significantly lower serum concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) than those carrying an ancestral GIP(-1920G) haplotype. After controlling for a GIPR variation, we showed that serum glucose concentrations of patients carrying GIP(-1920A/A) homozygotes are significantly higher than that of those carrying an ancestral GIP(-1920G) haplotype (odds ratio 3.53).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our proof-of-concept study indicates that common regulatory GIP variants impart a difference in GIP and glucose metabolism. The study also provides a rare example that identified the common variant-common phenotypic variation pattern based on evidence of moderate gene-environmental interactions.

PMID:
21300845
PMCID:
PMC3046833
DOI:
10.2337/db10-1331
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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