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J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2011 Jan;48(1):91-5. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.11-009FR. Epub 2010 Dec 28.

Lipid antioxidants: free radical scavenging versus regulation of enzymatic lipid peroxidation.

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  • 1Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Bridgeside Point, 100 Technology Drive, Suite 350, PA, USA.

Abstract

The essentiality of polyunsaturated lipids makes membranes susceptible to peroxidative modifications. One of the most contemporary examples includes selective peroxidation of cardiolipin in mitochondria of cells undergoing apoptosis. Cardiolipin peroxidation products are required for the mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, release of pro-apoptotic factors and completion of the cell death program. Therefore, search for effective inhibitors of cardiolipin peroxidation is critical to discovery and development of anti-apoptotic antioxidants. Mitochondria contain significant amounts of α-tocopherol, a well known scavenger of reactive free radicals. In the present study, we used an oxidative lipidomics approach to evaluate the effect of α-tocopherol and its homologues with different lengths of the side-chain such as 2,5,7,8,-tetramethyl-2(4-methylpentyl)-6-chromanol and 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol, on oxidation of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin induced by cytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Our data indicate that vitamin E homologues inhibit not only accumulation of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin hydroperoxides but also hydroxy-derivatives of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin formed in the enzymatic peroxidase half-reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c. This suggests that protective effects of vitamin E homologues against tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c/hydrogen peroxide are realized largely due to their effects on the peroxidase activity of cytochrome c towards tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin rather than via their scavenging activity.

KEYWORDS:

antioxidants; cardiolipin peroxidation; cytochrome c; lipidomics; peroxidase activity; α-tocopherol

PMID:
21297919
PMCID:
PMC3022072
DOI:
10.3164/jcbn.11-009FR
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