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Transplantation. 2011 Apr 27;91(8):853-7. doi: 10.1097/TP.0b013e31820f08e8.

The 5-year outcome of ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation with rituximab induction.

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Department of Surgery, Kidney Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.



In 2002, we introduced the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody, rituximab, for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABO-IKT). Here, we report the 5-year outcome obtained using rituximab as part of the preoperative regimen for ABO-IKT.


Between January 2002 and December 2008, 408 patients underwent living-related kidney transplantation at our department. The patients were divided into three groups: group A (n=280), ABO-compatible kidney transplantation (ABO-CKT); group B (n=63), ABO-IKT without rituximab induction; and group C (n=50), ABO-IKT with rituximab induction. Basic immunosuppression was the same in all three groups except for the use of rituximab, which was administered at 100 mg (n=6), 200 mg (n=26), and 500 to 1000 mg (n=18).


The graft survival rates in groups A, B, and C were 99.2%, 96.8%, and 100% at 1 year, 93.8%, 94.9%, and 100% at 3 years, and 88.4%, 90.3%, and 100% at 5 years after transplantation, respectively. Serum creatinine levels in the three groups were not different at 1, 3, and 5 years after transplantation. The numbers of episodes of acute antibody-mediated rejection in groups A, B, and C were 7 (2.5%), 10 (15.9%), and 2 (4.0%), respectively (P=0.651), and acute cellular rejection was observed in 40 (14.3%), 6 (9.5%), and 2 (4.0%) patients, respectively (P=0.0957). There was no increased risk of cytomegalovirus infection in group C.


In the long term, inclusion of rituximab in the preoperative regimen yielded an even better outcome than that of ABO-CKT and rituximab-untreated ABO-IKT, without any increase in the risk of infection.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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