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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Apr;300(4):H1442-50. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00917.2010. Epub 2011 Feb 4.

TGF-β2 treatment enhances cytoprotective factors released from embryonic stem cells and inhibits apoptosis in infarcted myocardium.

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  • 1Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, 32816, USA.


We investigated whether factors released from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells primed with and without transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 inhibit iodoacetic acid (IAA)- and H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in the cell culture system as well as after transplantation in the infarcted heart. We generated conditioned media (CMs) from ES cells primed with and without TGF-β2 and determined their effects on IAA- and H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. We also transplanted both ES-CMs in the infarcted heart to determine the effects on apoptosis and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) at day (D)1 and D14. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, apoptotic ELISA, and cell viability data demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) reduced apoptosis with ES-CM compared with controls in both cell culture models. Moreover, TGF-β2-primed ES-CM (T-ES-CM) demonstrated enhanced beneficial effects, with further reduced (P < 0.05) apoptosis compared with ES-CM, suggesting the a presence of additional cytoprotective released factors after TGF-β2 treatment. Next, our in vivo apoptosis data suggested significant decrease in apoptosis with both ES-CMs compared with MI alone at D1 and D14. Notably, T-ES-CM demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of apoptosis and fibrosis with improved cardiac function compared with ES-CM at D14, whereas no such effects were observed at D1. Next, we confirmed that apoptosis is mediated through a prosurvival Akt pathway. Moreover, we determined that after TGF-β2 treatment there was a two- to fivefold increase in cytoprotective released factors (interleukin-10, stem cell factor, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, and VEGF) with T-ES-CM compared with ES-CM. In conclusion, we suggest that factors released from ES cells with and without TGF-β2 treatment contain antiapoptotic factors that inhibit apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. We also suggest that T-ES-CM demonstrates additional beneficial effects that provide useful information for future therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

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