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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Apr;77(7):2502-7. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02252-10. Epub 2011 Feb 4.

Diversity of and selection acting on cylindrospermopsin cyrB gene adenylation domain sequences in Florida.

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School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Florida, 7922 NW 71st Street, Gainesville, FL 32653, USA.


Aphanizomenon ovalisporum is the only confirmed cylindrospermopsin producer identified in the United States to date. On the other hand, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a prominent feature of many lakes in Florida and other regions of the United States. To see the variation in cylindrospermopsin cyrB gene adenylation domain sequences and possibly discover new cylindrospermopsin producers, we collected water samples for a 3-year period from 17 different systems in Florida. Positive amplicons were cloned and sequenced, revealing that approximately 92% of sequences were A. ovalisporum-like (>99% identity). Interestingly, 6% of sequences were very similar (>99% identity) to cyrB sequences of C. raciborskii from Australia and of Aphanizomenon sp. from Germany. Neutrality tests suggest that A. ovalisporum-like cyrB adenylation domain sequences are under purifying selection, with abundant low-frequency polymorphisms within the population. On the other hand, when compared between species by codon-based methods, amino acids of CyrB also seem to be under purifying selection, in accordance with the one proposed amino acid thought to be activated by the CyrB adenylation domain.

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