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Vaccine. 2011 Mar 21;29(14):2613-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.046. Epub 2011 Feb 1.

No effect of 2008/09 seasonal influenza vaccination on the risk of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza infection in England.

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  • 1Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, UK.


This study reports effectiveness of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) against confirmed pandemic influenza infection in England using a retrospective test-negative case-control study. Cases and controls were frequency matched by age, swabbing-week and region. On univariable and multivariable analysis adjusted for underlying clinical risk factors, cases were no more or less likely than controls to be vaccinated with 2008-09 or 2007-08 season TIV. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness for the former was -6% (-43% to 22%). Vaccine effectiveness did not differ significantly by age-group or hospitalisation status. There was no evidence prior vaccination with TIV significantly altered subsequent risk of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 infection.

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