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World J Cardiol. 2011 Jan 26;3(1):18-24. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v3.i1.18.

Effects of interventions on oxidative stress and inflammation of cardiovascular diseases.

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Sewon Lee, Yoonjung Park, Mozow Yusof Zuidema, Cuihua Zhang, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Pharmacology and Physiology and Nutritional Sciences, Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, United States.


Excessive oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation are major pathophysiological factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) such as hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that a compromised anti-oxidant system can lead to excessive oxidative stress in cardiovascular related organs, resulting in cell damage and death. In addition, increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, are closely related to morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular complications. Emerging evidence suggests that interventions including nutrition, pharmacology and exercise may activate expression of cellular anti-oxidant systems via the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 signaling pathway and play a role in preventing inflammatory processes in CVD. The focus of the present review is to summarize recent evidence showing the role of these anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory interventions in cardiovascular disease. We believe that these findings may prompt new effective pathogenesis-oriented interventions, based on the exercise-induced protection from disease in the cardiovascular system, aimed at targeting oxidant stress and inflammation.


Anti-oxidant; Exercise; Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 signaling; Pro-inflammatory cytokines

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