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Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011 Feb;13(2):157-64. doi: 10.1089/dia.2010.0122.

Genetic variants in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and retinoid X receptor-α gene and type 2 diabetes risk: a case-control study of a Chinese Han population.

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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.



The serum levels of adiponectin are paradoxically decreased in obesity and may play important roles in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Potentially functional polymorphisms in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and retinoid X receptor-α (RXR-α) genes may alter T2DM risks by increasing the human adiponectin promoter activity in cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PPAR-γ and RXR-α were associated with risk of T2DM. To test this hypothesis, three potentially functional SNPs of PPAR-γ and four of RXR-α with a minor allele frequency of ≥ 0.05 in the Chinese Han population were identified from the National Center for Biotechnology Information dbSNPs database to evaluate their association with T2DM.


Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to test the genotypes in T2DM patients (n = 540) and normal controls (n = 604).


The variant genotypes rs2920502CC, rs3856806CT, rs3856806CT/TT, and rs4240711AG/GG were associated with T2DM. Furthermore, the prevalences of haplotype GTC and CTG in PPAR-γ and GTAC in RXR-α were less frequent in cases (17.1%, 2.6%, and 2.4%, respectively) than in controls (22.3%, 3.8%, and 6.6%, respectively), whereas GTGT in RXR-α was more frequent in cases (6.9%) than in controls (4.4%) (P < 0.05 for both two-sided χ(2) test and thousand times permutation tests). Patients with genotype CT/TT of rs3856806 and genotype AG/GG of rs4240711 had higher levels of serum adiponectin than those with the genotype CC and genotype AA (P = 0.026 and 0.021, respectively). Model X2 X5 X6 X7 (rs3856806, rs3132291, rs4240711, and rs4842194) was the best model with the highest test balanced accuracy (0.5764) (cross-validation consistency = 10/10) in the multifactor dimensionality reduction method.


The PPAR-γ and RXR-α gene variants associated with the development of T2DM in this study must be investigated in a larger population to reveal any potential effects on metabolism.

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