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Genome Res. 2011 Mar;21(3):402-9. doi: 10.1101/gr.108563.110. Epub 2011 Jan 31.

Clcn4-2 genomic structure differs between the X locus in Mus spretus and the autosomal locus in Mus musculus: AT motif enrichment on the X.

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Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.


In Mus spretus, the chloride channel 4 gene Clcn4-2 is X-linked and dosage compensated by X up-regulation and X inactivation, while in the closely related mouse species Mus musculus, Clcn4-2 has been translocated to chromosome 7. We sequenced Clcn4-2 in M. spretus and identified the breakpoints of the evolutionary translocation in the Mus lineage. Genetic and epigenetic differences were observed between the 5'ends of the autosomal and X-linked loci. Remarkably, Clcn4-2 introns have been truncated on chromosome 7 in M. musculus as compared with the X-linked loci from seven other eutherian mammals. Intron sequences specifically preserved in the X-linked loci were significantly enriched in AT-rich oligomers. Genome-wide analyses showed an overall enrichment in AT motifs unique to the eutherian X (except for genes that escape X inactivation), suggesting a role for these motifs in regulation of the X chromosome.

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