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Cell Mol Immunol. 2011 Mar;8(2):103-9. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2010.65. Epub 2011 Jan 31.

Antibodies in celiac disease: implications beyond diagnostics.

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Pediatric Research Centre, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.


Celiac disease is a multisystemic dietary, gluten-induced autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of transglutaminase (TG) 2 serum autoantibodies. Distinct autoantibodies targeting members of the TG family (TG2, TG3 and TG6) are found deposited in small-bowel mucosa and in extraintestinal tissues affected by the disease. Serum autoantibodies against other self-antigens also emerge in untreated celiac disease patients. Although villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia in small-bowel biopsy samples are still the gold standards in diagnostics, celiac disease-specific antibodies are widely used as diagnostic aids. Gluten-induced small-bowel mucosal T-cell response is the cornerstone in the pathogenesis of the disorder, but humoral immunity may also play a central role. This review article is focused on the autoantibodies that occur in the context of celiac disease. The article summarizes the diagnostic utility of different celiac-related antibodies and discusses their roles in the pathogenesis of the disease.

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