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Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 May;39(10):4373-86. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr011. Epub 2011 Jan 29.

Not1 mediates recruitment of the deadenylase Caf1 to mRNAs targeted for degradation by tristetraprolin.

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Helmholtz Junior Research Group Posttranscriptional Control of Gene Expression, German Cancer Research Center, DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.


The carbon catabolite repressor protein 4 (Ccr4)-Negative on TATA (Not) complex controls gene expression at two levels. In the nucleus, it regulates the basal transcription machinery, nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and histone modifications. In the cytoplasm, the complex is required for messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover through its two associated deadenylases, Ccr4 and Caf1. Not1 is the largest protein of the Ccr4-Not complex and serves as a scaffold for other subunits of the complex. Here, we provide evidence that human Not1 in the cytoplasm associates with the C-terminal domain of tristetraprolin (TTP), an RNA binding protein that mediates rapid degradation of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs). Not1 shows extensive interaction through its central region with TTP, whereas binding of Caf1 is restricted to a smaller central domain within Not1. Importantly, Not1 is required for the rapid decay of ARE-mRNAs, and TTP can recruit the Caf1 deadenylase only in presence of Not1. Thus, cytoplasmic Not1 provides a platform that allows a specific RNA binding protein to recruit the Caf1 deadenylase and thereby trigger decay of its target mRNAs.

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