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Clin Chest Med. 2011 Mar;32(1):75-91, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2010.11.004.

Smoking and smoking cessation in pregnancy.

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Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine, 4150 V Street, Suite 3400, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.


Smoking during pregnancy is among the leading preventable causes of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Smoking prevalence among young women is the primary determinant of smoking prevalence during pregnancy. Smoking among women of childbearing age is associated with reduced fertility, increased complications of pregnancy, and a variety of adverse fetal outcomes. There is increasing evidence of lasting adverse effects on offspring. Guidelines for smoking cessation during pregnancy have been developed. This article reviews the epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy, the adverse effects of smoking on the mother, fetus, and offspring, and recommended approaches to smoking cessation for pregnant women.

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