Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Bioconjug Chem. 2011 Feb 16;22(2):227-34. doi: 10.1021/bc100372u. Epub 2011 Jan 28.

Bidirectional fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in mutated and chemically modified yellow fluorescent protein (YFP).

Author information

  • 1Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.


Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using fluorescent protein variants are used for studying the associations and biomolecular motions of macromolecules inside the cell. Intramolecular FRET utilizing fluorescent chemical labels has been applied in nucleic acid chemistry for detection of specific sequence. However, the biotechnological applications of intramolecular FRET in fluorescent proteins have not been exploited. This study demonstrates the intramolecular FRET between fluorescent protein and conjugated chemical label whereby FRET occurs from inside to outside and vice versa for fluorescent protein. The fluorescent protein is modified for the attachment of chemical fluorophores and the novel FRET pairs created by conjugation are MDCC (435/475)-Citrine (516/529) and Citrine-Alexa fluor (568/603). These protein-label pairs exhibited strong intramolecular FRET and the energy transfer efficiency was determined based on the time evolution of the ratio of emission intensities of labeled and unlabeled proteins. The efficiency was found to be 0.79 and 0.89 for MDCC-Citrine and 0.24 and 0.65 for Citrine-Alexa Fluor pairs when the label is conjugated at different sites in the protein. FoĢˆrster distance and the average distance between the fluorophores were also determined. The bidirectional approach described here can provide new insights into designing FRET-based sensors.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for American Chemical Society
    Loading ...
    Support Center