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Int J Food Microbiol. 2011 Jan 31;145(1):205-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.12.025. Epub 2011 Jan 3.

Analysis of bacterial communities of traditional fermented West African cereal foods using culture independent methods.

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1
Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park , Conley Lane, Norwich NR4 7UA, United Kingdom.

Abstract

In this study, the microbial composition of kunu-zaki and ogi, two popular foods in Nigeria produced after natural, uncontrolled fermentation of cereals, was assessed by culture-independent molecular profiling methods. In particular, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the presence of diverse bacterial communities. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE fingerprints identified species related to Weissella confusa, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus amylolyticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Bacillus spp. and Lactococcus lactis spp lactis from food samples obtained from northern and southern geographical locations. A more comprehensive analysis of 272 full-length 16S rRNA gene inserts revealed that 70% of them were assigned to the Lactobacillaceae family and 19% to the Streptococcaceae family. Interestingly, sequences associated with a particular food type were also identified. For example, L. plantarum, L. pantheris and L. vaccinostercus were found in ogi but not in kunu-zaki while W. confusa, Streptococcus lutetiensis and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus were found in kunu-zaki but not in ogi. Phylotypes corresponding to potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus were also detected highlighting the need for controlled fermentation processes.

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