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Child Neuropsychol. 2011;17(2):151-72. doi: 10.1080/09297049.2010.525501. Epub 2011 Jan 25.

Development of cognitive skills in children with motor coordination impairments at 12-month follow-up.

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Department of Psychology IV, University of Wuerzburg, Roentgenring 10, Wuerzburg, Germany.


The current study presents a 1-year follow-up investigation of the development of executive functions (i.e., inhibition, updating, and shifting) in children with motor coordination impairments. Cognitive and motor coordination skills of children (N = 94) aged between 5 and 7 years with and without motor coordination impairments were compared. A second focus of the study was on pre-academic skills. The results indicate marked stability of motor coordination impairments and persistent executive functioning deficits in motor-impaired children. Inhibition and shifting performance was consistently lower, compared to the children without motor coordination impairments. Moreover, children with motor coordination impairments showed lower pre-academic skills, facing a substantial disadvantage at the beginning of formal schooling. The combined cognitive and motor problems may be the result of an underlying inhibition deficit or a general automation deficit. Implications for intervention are discussed.

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