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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011 Mar;141(3):711-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.11.026. Epub 2011 Jan 26.

Transcatheter transapical mitral valve-in-valve implantations for a failed bioprosthesis: a case series.

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St Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.



Mitral valve replacement with bioprosthetic valves is becoming more common. The incidence of structural valve deterioration and the need for reoperative mitral surgery are expected to increase. The operative mortality and morbidity associated with redo mitral surgery remains high. Transapical transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve implantation might offer an alternate and safer approach for high-risk patients.


From July 2007 to April 2010, 11 patients with symptomatic mitral prosthetic valve dysfunction underwent transapical transapical transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve implantation in our institution. Data were collected and entered into a database prospectively. The mean age was 81 ± 5 years, with 64% being female. The mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score was 16.1% ± 5.8%.


All patients had successful transapical transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve implantation with no 30-day mortality. One patient died 45 days after surgical intervention from respiratory failure, and 1 patient died on day 135. All other patients were alive and in New York Heart Association class I/II at a median follow-up of 357 days. The median postprocedural transvalvular gradient was 7 mm Hg, and minimal transvalvular or paravalvular regurgitation was seen.


Transcatheter transapical valve-in-valve implantations into a failed mitral bioprosthesis is technically feasible with acceptable results. It might be a viable approach for selected high-risk patients.

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