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J Cell Biochem. 2011 Feb;112(2):643-52. doi: 10.1002/jcb.22966.

Phloroglucinol derivative MCPP induces cell apoptosis in human colon cancer.

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Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.


This study is the first to investigate the anticancer effects of the new phloroglucinol derivative (3,6-bis(3-chlorophenylacetyl)phloroglucinol; MCPP) in human colon cancer cells. MCPP induced cell death and antiproliferation in three human colon cancer, HCT-116, SW480, and Caco-2 cells, but not in primary human dermal fibroblast cells. MCPP-induced concentration-dependent apoptotic cell death in colon cancer cells was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Treatment of HCT-116 human colon cancer cells with MCPP was found to induce a number of signature endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers; and up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α), suggesting the induction of ER stress. MCPP also increased GSK3α/β(Tyr270/216) phosphorylation and reduced GSK3α/β(Ser21/9) phosphorylation time-dependently. Transfection of cells with GRP78 or CHOP siRNA, or treatment of GSK3 inhibitor SB216163 reduced MCPP-mediated cell apoptosis. Treatment of MCPP also increased caspase-7, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activity. The inhibition of caspase activity by z-DEVE-FMK or z-VAD-FMK significantly reduced MCPP-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of GSK3 inhibitor SB216763 also dramatically reversed MCPP-induced GRP and CHOP up-regulation, and pro-caspase-3 and pro-caspase-9 degradation. Taken together, the present study provides evidences to support that GRP78 and CHOP expression, and GSK3α/β activation in mediating the MCPP-induced human colon cancer cell apoptosis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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