Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Biomed Opt Express. 2010 Jul 26;1(1):278-284.

Deeply penetrating in vivo photoacoustic imaging using a clinical ultrasound array system.

Abstract

Using a hand-held photoacoustic probe integrated with a clinical ultrasound array system, we successfully imaged objects deeply positioned in biological tissues. The optical contrasts were enhanced by methylene blue with a concentration of ~30 mM. The penetration depth reached ~5.2 cm in chicken breast tissue by using 650-nm wavelength, which is ~4.7 times the 1/e optical penetration depth. This imaging depth was achieved using a laser fluence on the tissue surface of only 3 mJ/cm(2), which is 1/7 of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) safety limit (20 mJ/cm(2)). The noise equivalent sensitivity at this depth was ~11 mM. Further, after intradermal injection of methylene blue in a rat, a sentinel lymph node was easily detected in vivo, beneath a 2-cm thick layer of chicken breast. Also, blood located 3.5 cm deep in the rat was clearly imaged with intrinsic contrast. We have photoacoustically guided insertion of a needle into a rat sentinel lymph node with accumulated methylene blue. These results highlight the clinical potential of photoacoustic image-guided identification and needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes for axillary staging in breast cancer patients.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center