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Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011 Apr;43(4):478-81. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2011.01.007. Epub 2011 Jan 21.


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Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Thielallee 63, 14195 Berlin, Germany.


Metabologens initiate, promote and maintain morphogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) which belong to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, represent a major class of metabologens that regulate ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm derived tissue formation. In order to temporally and spatially control BMP initiated signaling cascades, a tight regulatory network is needed to maintain concinnity. There are a number of ways how BMP signaling can be inhibited or more likely be modified, among which the direct extracellular inhibition through cysteine-knot containing proteins from the DAN-, the twisted gastrulation-, chordin- and noggin-family is a classic. This review focuses on noggin and its impact on the vast array of BMP driven actions and thereby invites the ever-growing BMP research field to (re-) investigate noggin's function in detail.

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