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Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2011 May;32(5):281-9. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2011 Jan 20.

Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments.

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Centro per la Prevenzione e Cura del Tabagismo (CPCT), Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria 'Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele', Università di Catania, Catania, Italy.


Tobacco use is a global pandemic that poses a substantial and costly health burden. There are some treatment options are available, but currently marketed smoking-cessation drugs lack high levels of efficacy, particularly in real-life settings. Consequently, there is a compelling need for more effective pharmacotherapies to aid smokers in maintaining long-term abstinence. Advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in nicotine dependence have recently been translated into new medications and vaccines that interfere with nicotine signaling, many of which are currently at an advanced stage of development. In the present article we review current and emerging pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, focusing on the mechanistic rationale for their potential anti-addiction efficacy, major findings in preclinical and clinical studies, and future research directions.

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