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Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2010 Sep;96(9):841-60.

[Physiology of synapse: from molecular modules to retrograde modulation].

[Article in Russian]


Synapses are highly organized, specific structures assuring rapid and highly selective interactions between cells. Synaptic transmission involves the release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic neurons and its detection by specific ligand-gated ion channels at the surface membrane of postsynaptic neurons. The protenomic analysis shows that for self-formation and functioning of synapses nearly 2000 proteins are involved in mammalian brain. The core complex in excitatory synapses includes glutamate receptors, potassium channels, CaMKII, scaffolding protein and actin. These proteins exist as part of a highly organized protein complex known as the postsynaptic density (PSD). The coordinated functioning of the different PSD components determines the strength of signalling between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Synaptic plasticity is regulated by changes in the amount of receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, changes in the shape and size of dendritic spines, posttranslational modification of PSD components, modulation kinetics of synthesis and degradation of proteins. Integration of these processes leads to long-lasting changes in synaptic function and neuronal networks underlying learning-related plasticity, memory and information treatment in nervous system of multicellular organisms.

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