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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Apr;110(4):1021-8. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00287.2010. Epub 2011 Jan 20.

Interactive effects of APOE haplotype, sex, and exercise on postheparin plasma lipase activities.

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  • 1Preventive Cardiology-JB704, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT 06102-5037, USA.


Hepatic lipase (HL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities (HLA, LPLA) modify lipoproteins and facilitate their binding to hepatic receptors. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) physically interacts with the lipases, and the three common haplotypes of the APOE gene (ε2, ε3, and ε4) yield protein isoforms (E2, E3, and E4, respectively) that are functionally different. Lipase activities themselves differ by sex and exercise training status. The interaction of APOE genotype, exercise training, and sex effects on lipase activities has not been studied. We measured postheparin plasma lipase activities in normolipidemic men and women with the three most common APOE genotypes, which are the haplotype combinations ε2/ε3 (n = 53 ), ε3/ε3 (n = 62), and ε4/ε3 (n = 52), enrolled in 6 mo of aerobic exercise training. These haplotype combinations comprise an estimated 11.6, 62.3, and 21.3% of the population, respectively. Baseline HLA was 35% lower in women than in men (P < 0.0001). In men but not women, HLA was higher in ε2/ε3 group compared with ε4/ε3 (P = 0.01) and ε3/ε3 (P = 0.05). Neither sex nor APOE genotype affected baseline LPLA. Training decreased HLA by 5.2% (P = 0.018) with no APOE effect. The apparent increase in LPLA following exercise was significant and APOE dependent only when corrected for baseline insulin (P < 0.05). Exercise decreased LPLA by 0.8 μmol free fatty acid (FFA)·ml⁻¹·h⁻¹ (-6%) in ε3/ε3 compared with the combined increases of 6.6% in ε2/ε3 and 12% in ε4/ε3 (P = 0.018 vs. ε3/ε3). However, these differences were statistically significant only after correcting for baseline insulin. We conclude that common APOE genotypes interact with 1) sex to modulate HLA regardless of training status, with ε2/ε3 men demonstrating higher HLA than ε3/ε3 or ε4/ε3 men, and 2) aerobic training to modulate LPLA, regardless of sex, with ε3/ε3 subjects showing a significant decrease compared with an increase in ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε4 after controlling for baseline insulin.

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