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Learning and Developmental Disabilities.

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Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition. Washington (DC): World Bank; 2006. Chapter 49.

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Learning and developmental disabilities (LDDs) include functional limitations that manifest in infancy or childhood as a result of disorders of or injuries to the developing nervous system (Institute of Medicine Committee on Nervous System Disorders in Developing Countries 2001). These limitations range from mild to severe and can affect cognition, mobility, hearing, vision, speech, and behavior. The known causes of LDD are numerous and include genetic factors, nutritional factors, infections, toxic exposures, trauma, perinatal factors, and multifactorial conditions (table 49.1). Selected causes of LDD that are not addressed in detail in this chapter are described in box 49.1.

Copyright © 2006, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank Group.

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