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Endocrinology. 2011 Mar;152(3):773-81. doi: 10.1210/en.2010-1239. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Estrogens promote invasion of prostate cancer cells in a paracrine manner through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in prostatic stromal cells.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Bioactive Materials Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.


Accumulating evidence suggests an enhancing effect of estrogens on prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), which plays an important role in prostate cancer invasion, is mainly expressed in prostatic stromal cells (PrSC). Here we show that estradiol (E(2)) treatment up-regulates MMP2 production in PrSC, which promotes PCa cell invasion in a paracrine manner. Conditioned medium (CM) was collected from E(2)-treated prostatic stromal cell line WPMY-1 and primary PrSC. The CM of E(2)-treated WPMY-1 and PrSC promoted invasion of PCa cells, as measured by Matrigel transwell assays. Treatment with E(2) and 1,3,5-Tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole, an estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) specific agonist, significantly up-regulated MMP2 expression in WPMY-1 and PrSC cells at both mRNA and protein levels. The CM treated with an anti-MMP2 antibody lost the stimulatory effect on invasion of PCa cells. The ER inhibitor ICI 182,780, as well as a TGFβ1 neutralizing antibody and ERα-specific small interfering RNA effectively suppressed E(2)-induced MMP2 expression in WPMY-1 cells. Mechanistic studies showed that E(2) up-regulated MMP2 in an indirect manner: E(2) induced TGFβ1 expression via ERα; TGFβ1 stimulated MMP2 expression in PrSC; the invasion of PCa cells were stimulated by elevated MMP2 expression induced by E(2) in a paracrine manner. Our data show that E(2) induces MMP2 expression in WPMY-1 and PrSC cells, which was mediated by TGFβ1. The effect of E(2) on invasion of PCa cells is mediated by up-regulation of MMP2 in a paracrine mechanism.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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