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Nutr J. 2011 Jan 19;10:7. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-7.

Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products.

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Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, Sweden.



Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP) and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties.


10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch) with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK) or wheat (WK) kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB) in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H(2)), and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI) was registered.


All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II) than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38). A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36). RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270) and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min), r = -0.29 and -0.29), which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33). The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min) compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%). A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness), and a higher breath H(2) in the late postprandial phase (120-270 and 270-390 min, r = 0.46 and 0.70). High H(2) (AUC 120-270 min) also correlated with lower EI (r = -0.34).


Rye products, rich in indigestible carbohydrates, induce colonic fermentation already post the breakfast meal, and lowers acute insulin responses. A high excretion of breath H(2) also correlated with a higher GP. Especially, rye kernels induced a high GP which was associated with a 16% lowering of energy intake at a subsequent lunch meal. The bulking effect of rye fiber, colonically derived fermentation metabolites, a high GP and a low insulin response possibly all contributes to the benefits on glucose- and appetite regulation seen in an acute and semi-acute perspective.

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