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Yeast. 2011 Feb;28(2):153-66. doi: 10.1002/yea.1828. Epub 2010 Nov 2.

TCA cycle-independent acetate metabolism via the glyoxylate cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea.


In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the accepted theory is that due to TCA cycle dysfunction, the Δcit1 mutant lacking the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase (Cit1) cannot grow on acetate, regardless of the presence of the peroxisomal isoenzyme (Cit2). In this study, we re-evaluated the roles of Cit1 and Cit2 in acetate utilization and examined the pathway of acetate metabolism by analysing mutants defective in TCA or glyoxylate cycle enzymes. Although Δcit1 cells showed significantly reduced growth on rich acetate medium (YPA), they exhibited growth similar to Δcit2 and the wild-type cells on minimal acetate medium (YNBA). Impaired acetate utilization by Δcit1Δcit2 cells on YNBA was restored by ectopic expression of either Cit2 or its cytoplasmically localized variants. Deletion of any of the genes for the enzymes solely involved in the TCA cycle (IDH1, KGD1 and LSC1), except for SDH1, caused little defect in acetate utilization on YNBA but resulted in significant growth impairment on YPA. In contrast, cells lacking any of the genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle (ACO1, FUM1, MLS1, ICL1 and MDH2) did not grow on either YNBA or YPA. Deletion of SFC1 encoding the succinate-fumarate carrier also caused similar growth defects on YNBA. Our results suggest that in S. cerevisiae the glyoxylate cycle functions as a competent metabolic pathway for acetate utilization on YNBA, while both the TCA and glyoxylate cycles are essential for growth on YPA.

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