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Cell. 1990 Dec 21;63(6):1205-18.

Homologous ribosomal protein genes on the human X and Y chromosomes: escape from X inactivation and possible implications for Turner syndrome.

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Howard Hughes Research Laboratories, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142.


We have isolated two genes on the human sex chromosomes, one on the Y and one on the X, that appear to encode isoforms of ribosomal protein S4. These predicted RPS4Y and RPS4X proteins differ at 19 of 263 amino acids. Both genes are widely transcribed in human tissues, suggesting that the ribosomes of human males and females are structurally distinct. Transcription analysis revealed that, unlike most genes on the X chromosome, RPS4X is not dosage compensated. RPS4X maps to the long arm of the X chromosome (Xq), where no other genes are known to escape X inactivation. Curiously, RPS4X maps near the site from which the X-inactivating signal is thought to emanate. On the Y chromosome, RPS4Y maps to a 90 kb segment that has been implicated in Turner syndrome. We consider the possible role of RPS4 haploinsufficiency in the etiology of the Turner phenotype.

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