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Metab Eng. 2011 Mar;13(2):159-68. doi: 10.1016/j.ymben.2011.01.003. Epub 2011 Jan 15.

From zero to hero--design-based systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-lysine production.

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Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.


Here, we describe the development of a genetically defined strain of l-lysine hyperproducing Corynebacterium glutamicum by systems metabolic engineering of the wild type. Implementation of only 12 defined genome-based changes in genes encoding central metabolic enzymes redirected major carbon fluxes as desired towards the optimal pathway usage predicted by in silico modeling. The final engineered C. glutamicum strain was able to produce lysine with a high yield of 0.55 g per gram of glucose, a titer of 120 g L(-1) lysine and a productivity of 4.0 g L(-1) h(-1) in fed-batch culture. The specific glucose uptake rate of the wild type could be completely maintained during the engineering process, providing a highly viable producer. For these key criteria, the genetically defined strain created in this study lies at the maximum limit of classically derived producers developed over the last fifty years. This is the first report of a rationally derived lysine production strain that may be competitive with industrial applications. The design-based strategy for metabolic engineering reported here could serve as general concept for the rational development of microorganisms as efficient cellular factories for bio-production.

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