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Exp Cell Res. 2011 May 15;317(9):1239-45. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.01.010. Epub 2011 Jan 13.

GLP-1 for type 2 diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Medicine, Lund University, B11 BMC, SE-221 84 LUND, Sweden. Bo.Ahren@med.lu.se

Abstract

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapy of type 2 diabetes is executed either by GLP-1 receptor agonists, which stimulate the GLP-1 receptors, or by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which prevent the inactivation of endogenous GLP-1 thereby increasing the concentration of endogenous active GLP-1. GLP-1 activates pancreatic receptors resulting in improved glycemia through glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion. There is also a potential beta cell preservation effect, as judged from rodent studies. GLP-1 receptors are additionally expressed in extrapancreatic tissue, having potential for the treatment to reduce body weight and to potentially have beneficial cardio- and endothelioprotective effects. Clinical trials in subjects with type 2 diabetes have shown that in periods of 12 weeks or more, these treatments reduce HbA(1c) by ≈ 0.8-1.1% from baseline levels of 7.7-8.5%, and they are efficient both as monotherapy and in combination therapy with metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones or insulin. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor agonists reduce body weight, whereas DPP-4 inhibitors are body weight neutral. The treatment is safe with very low risk for adverse events, including hypoglycaemia. GLP-1 based therapy is thus a novel and now well established therapy of type 2 diabetes, with a particular value in combination with metformin in patients who are inadequately controlled by metformin alone.

PMID:
21237153
DOI:
10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.01.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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