Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Trends Ecol Evol. 1994 Jun;9(6):214-7. doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(94)90246-1.

Conditional outcomes in mutualistic interactions.

Author information

Dept of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.


Interspecific interactions are traditionally displayed in a grid in which each interaction is placed according to its outcome (positive, negative or neutral) for each partner. However, recent field studies consistently find the costs and benefits that determine net effects to vary greatly in both space and time, inevitably causing outcomes within most interactions to vary as well. Interactions show 'conditionality' when costs and benefits, and thus outcomes, are affected in predictable ways by current ecological conditions. The full range of natural outcomes of a given association may reveal far more about its ecological and evolutionary dynamics than does the average outcome at a given place and time.

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center