Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011 Jul;64(7):902-10. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2010.11.027. Epub 2011 Jan 14.

Application of various compositions of thoracodorsal perforator flap for craniofacial contour deformities.

Author information

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, 17, Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-792, Republic of Korea.



Craniofacial contour defects are challenging to restore because they may involve multiple tissues and span several aesthetic subunits in a non-contiguous manner. Some of these deformities may be associated with significant dead space in the region of sinus and orbit. The numerous subtle contours of the craniofacial regions must be preserved or restored to achieve a pleasing outcome.


We managed six patients with various craniofacial contour deformities as a result of hemifacial microsomia, infection, post excision of venous malformation, lipodystrophy, craniectomy for chronic frontal sinusitis and infected pneumocephalus. They were reconstructed with thoracodorsal perforator flaps bearing various components, that is, adiposal, adipofascial, dermoadiposal, adipomyofascial and osteomuscular elements. Half of the flaps were in chimaeric form. The largest flap size was 11 × 17 cm. All flaps survived and no patient required secondary contouring procedure, except for cranioplasty in one patient.


The thoracodorsal perforator flap is very suitable for restoration of craniofacial contour deformities. Its advantages include: (1) ease of customisation of size and thickness, (2) several choices of donor tissue from the lateral thoracic region yielding multiple tissue components, for example, adiposal, adipofascial, dermoadiposal, adipomyofascial and osteomuscular flaps, (3) presence of adjacent perforators in the thoracodorsal system, allowing chimaeric flap configuration, thereby improving adaptation to non-contiguous contour defects, (4) ability to tailor the donor and recipient vessel size match by varying how proximal to harvest along the thoracodorsal vessels, (5) primary closure of donor site and (6) flap harvesting in supine position allowing a two-team approach.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center