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Cancer Res. 2011 Mar 1;71(5):1561-72. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2868. Epub 2011 Jan 13.

LOXL2-mediated matrix remodeling in metastasis and mammary gland involution.

Author information

1
Section of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

More than 90% of cancer patient mortality is attributed to metastasis. In this study, we investigated a role for the lysyl oxidase-related enzyme lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) in breast cancer metastasis, in both patient samples and in vivo models. Analysis of a published microarray data set revealed that LOXL2 expression is correlated with metastasis and decreased survival in patients with aggressive breast cancer. In immunocompetent or immunocompromised orthotopic and transgenic breast cancer models we showed that genetic, chemical or antibody-mediated inhibition of LOXL2 resulted in decreased metastasis. Mechanistic investigations revealed that LOXL2 promotes invasion by regulating the expression and activity of the extracellular proteins tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). We found that LOXL2, TIMP1, and MMP9 are coexpressed during mammary gland involution, suggesting they function together in glandular remodeling after weaning. Finally, we found that LOXL2 is highly expressed in the basal/myoepithelial mammary cell lineage, like many other genes that are upregulated in basal-like breast cancers. Our findings highlight the importance of LOXL2 in breast cancer progression and support the development of anti-LOXL2 therapeutics for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

PMID:
21233336
PMCID:
PMC3842018
DOI:
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2868
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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