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Trends Ecol Evol. 1990 Nov;5(11):367-71. doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(90)90097-W.

Competition between kingdoms.

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Michael Hochberg and John Lawton are at the Centre for Population Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK.


Although studies of interspecific competition have traditionally been concerned with interactions between closely related species, ecological systems teem with examples of competition between representatives not only from different phyla, but even from different kingdoms. Indeed, inter-kingdom competition may be one of the commonest forms of interaction in nature; particularly prevalent are competitive interactions for shared hosts between insect parasitoids and pathogens from four other kingdoms. Ecologists have barely started to explore the ecological and evolutionary implications of interkingdom competition.

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