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Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2012;15(5):457-66. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2010.540758. Epub 2011 May 24.

Fast 3D reconstruction of the lower limb using a parametric model and statistical inferences and clinical measurements calculation from biplanar X-rays.

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Arts et Métiers ParisTech, CNRS, LBM, Paris, France.


In clinical routine, lower limb analysis relies on conventional X-ray (2D view) or computerised tomography (CT) Scan (lying position). However, these methods do not allow 3D analysis in standing position. The aim of this study is to propose a fast and accurate 3D-reconstruction-method based on parametric models and statistical inferences from biplanar X-rays with clinical measurements' (CM) assessment in standing position for a clinical routine use. For the reproducibility study, the 95% CI was under 2.7° for all lower limbs' angular measurements except for tibial torsion, femoral torsion and tibiofemoral rotation ( < 5°). The 95% CI were under 2.5 mm for lower limbs' lengths and 1.5 to 3° for the pelvis' CM. Comparisons between X-rays and CT-scan based 3D shapes in vitro showed mean differences of 1.0 mm (95% CI = 2.4 mm). Comparisons of 2D lower limbs' and 3D pelvis' CM between standing 'Shifted-Feet' and 'Non-Shifted-Feet' position showed means differences of 0.0 to 1.4°. Significant differences were found only for pelvic obliquity and rotation. The reconstruction time was about 5 min.

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