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Trends Cogn Sci. 1998 Dec 1;2(12):484-92.

Sleep: off-line memory reprocessing.

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Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, 74 Fenwood Road, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Behavioral studies of memory and learning in both humans and animals support a role for sleep in the consolidation and integration of memories. Physiological studies of hippocampal and cortical activity as well as of brainstem neuromodulatory systems demonstrate the state-dependence of communication both between and within the neocortex and hippocampus. These findings are consonant with observed cognition during sleep and immediately following awakening.

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