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Trends Cogn Sci. 1998 Sep 1;2(9):338-47.

Internal models in the cerebellum.

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Sobell Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, UK WC1N 3BG.


This review will focus on the possibility that the cerebellum contains an internal model or models of the motor apparatus. Inverse internal models can provide the neural command necessary to achieve some desired trajectory. First, we review the necessity of such a model and the evidence, based on the ocular following response, that inverse models are found within the cerebellar circuitry. Forward internal models predict the consequences of actions and can be used to overcome time delays associated with feedback control. Secondly, we review the evidence that the cerebellum generates predictions using such a forward model. Finally, we review a computational model that includes multiple paired forward and inverse models and show how such an arrangement can be advantageous for motor learning and control.

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