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Anaesth Intensive Care. 2010 Nov;38(6):1038-42.

In situ simulation training for paediatric cardiorespiratory arrest: initial observations and identification of latent errors.

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  • 1Sleep Wake Research Centre, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand.


In response to a successful, although difficult resuscitation in one of our paediatric wards, we developed and implemented an educational program to improve the resuscitation skills, teamwork and safety climate in our multidisciplinary acute-care paediatric service. The program is ongoing and consists of didactic presentations, high-fidelity in situ simulation and facilitated debriefing to encourage reflective learning. The underlying goal, to provide this training to all staff over a two-year period, should be achieved by late 2011. In this preliminary report we describe teamwork difficulties that are commonly found during such training. These included inconsistent leadership behaviours, inadequate delegation of areas of responsibility, failure to communicate problems during the execution of technical tasks (such as difficulty opening the resuscitation trolley) and failure to challenge inadequate or inappropriate therapy (such as poor chest expansion during bag-mask ventilation). In addition, we unexpectedly discovered seven latent errors in our clinical environment during the first nine months of course delivery. The most disturbing of these was that participants repeatedly struggled to identify and overcome the locking-mechanism and tamper-proof device on a newly introduced resuscitation trolley.

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