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Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Nov;10(11):5663-70.

Opposing regulatory functions of positive and negative elements in UASG control transcription of the yeast GAL genes.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, State University of New York Health Science Center, Syracuse 13210.


The yeast GAL1 and GAL10 genes are transcribed at a remarkably low basal level when galactose is unavailable and are induced by over 4 orders of magnitude when it becomes available. Approximately six negative control elements (designated GAL operators GALO1 to GALO6) are located adjacent to or overlapping four binding sites for the transcription activator GAL4 in the GAL upstream activating sequence UASG. The negative control elements contribute to the broad range of inducibility of GAL1 and GAL10 by inhibiting two GAL4/galactose-independent activating elements (GAE1 and GAE2) in UASG. In turn, multiple GAL4-binding sites in UASG are necessary for GAL4 to overcome repression by the negative control elements under fully inducing conditions. When glucose in addition to galactose is available (repressing conditions), the ability of GAL4 to activate transcription is diminished as a result of its reduced affinity for DNA and the reduced availability of inducer. Under these conditions, the negative control elements inhibit transcriptional activation from the glucose-attenuated GAL4 sites, thus accounting at least in part for glucose repression acting in cis. A normal part of transcriptional regulation of the GAL1 and GAL10 genes, therefore, appears to involve a balance between the opposing functions of positive and negative control elements.

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