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World J Surg. 2011 Aug;35(8):1751-6. doi: 10.1007/s00268-010-0951-0.

Expression and function of a large non-coding RNA gene XIST in human cancer.

Author information

1
Molecular Surgeon Research Center, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Mail stop: BCM391, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

X inactive-specific transcript (XIST) RNA is involved in X chromosome silencing in female cells and allows X chromosome equilibration with males. X inactive-specific transcript expression has been found to be dysregulated in a variety of human cancers when compared to normal cells; meanwhile, the inactivated X chromosome has been noted to be conspicuously absent in human cancer specimens, whereas X chromosome duplications are widely noted. The specific pathways whereby changes in X chromosome status and XIST expression occur in cancer remain incompletely described. Nevertheless, a role for XIST in BRCA1-mediated epigenetic activity has been proposed.

METHODS:

Here we review the data regarding XIST expression and X chromosome status in a variety of female, male, and non-sex-related human cancers.

CONCLUSIONS:

It is not yet known whether X chromosome duplication, XIST dysregulation, and over-expression of X-linked genes represent important factors in tumorgenesis or are simply a consequence of overall epigenetic instability in these cancers.

PMID:
21212949
PMCID:
PMC3275083
DOI:
10.1007/s00268-010-0951-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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