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J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 11;286(10):8117-27. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.170720. Epub 2011 Jan 5.

Cyclin D1 is a selective modifier of androgen-dependent signaling and androgen receptor function.

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Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.


D-type cyclins regulate cellular outcomes in part through cyclin-dependent, kinase-independent mechanisms that modify transcription factor action, and recent in vivo studies showed that cyclin D1 associates with a large number of transcriptional regulators in cells of the retina and breast. Given the frequency of cyclin D1 alterations in cancer, it is imperative to delineate the molecular mechanisms by which cyclin D1 controls key transcription factor networks in human disease. Prostate cancer was used as a paradigm because this tumor type is reliant at all stages of the disease on androgen receptor (AR) signaling, and cyclin D1 has been shown to negatively modulate AR-dependent expression of prostate-specific antigen (KLK3/PSA). Strategies were employed to control cyclin D1 expression under conditions of hormone depletion, and the effect of cyclin D1 on subsequent androgen-dependent gene expression was determined using unbiased gene expression profiling. Modulating cyclin D1 conferred widespread effects on androgen signaling and revealed cyclin D1 to be a selective effector of hormone action. A subset of androgen-induced target genes, known to be directly regulated by AR, was strongly suppressed by cyclin D1. Analyses of AR occupancy at target gene regulatory loci of clinical relevance demonstrated that cyclin D1 limits AR residence after hormone stimulation. Together, these findings reveal a new function for cyclin D1 in controlling hormone-dependent transcriptional outcomes and demonstrate a pervasive role for cyclin D1 in regulating transcription factor dynamics.

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