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J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;51(8):1213-22. doi: 10.1177/0091270010382909. Epub 2011 Jan 5.

Mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics during maintenance immunosuppression in African American and Caucasian renal transplant recipients.

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Pharmacotherapy Research Center, Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-1200, USA.


Renal transplant recipients exhibit variability in mycophenolic acid (MPA) and MPA glucuronide (MPAG) pharmacokinetics, which are influenced by clinical and demographic factors. Racial influence on MPA and MPAG pharmacokinetics was investigated in 53 patients: 17 African American males, 22 Caucasian males, and 14 females receiving mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclosporine. A 12-hour steady-state pharmacokinetic study was conducted. Enterohepatic circulation of MPA was characterized by a second plasma concentration peak and was included in a novel statistical model with MPAG. MPA clearance in African American males was 26.5 ± 14.4 L/h versus 17.9 ± 6.1 L/h in Caucasian males (P = .035) and 16.1 ± 4.6 L/h in Caucasian females (P = .024) with no difference noted in MPA troughs. Enterohepatic circulation occurred less frequently in African American males (23%) compared with Caucasian males (42%) and Caucasian females (50%) (P > .05). Cyclosporine exposure was correlated with MPA and MPAG pharmacokinetics, whereas creatinine clearance influenced MPAG pharmacokinetics. A racial difference was noted with more rapid MPA clearance in African American males compared with Caucasians. The results support differential MPA dosing and the role of therapeutic drug monitoring in addition to considering the influence of renal function and concurrent immunosuppressives on MPA and MPAG pharmacokinetics.

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