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Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(2):256-63. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2011.523494.

Lycopene and apo-12'-lycopenal reduce cell proliferation and alter cell cycle progression in human prostate cancer cells.

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Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.


Lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. However, lycopene may not be wholly responsible for the effects seen in vivo or in cell culture systems. Apo-lycopenals or other lycopene metabolites, whether produced by cleavage enzymes within the body or consumed with tomato products, can be found in tissues at concentrations equivalent to physiological retinoid concentrations. Therefore, it is plausible that lycopenoids, like retinoids, are bioactive within tissues. Androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells were treated with lycopene, apo-8'-lycopenal, or apo-12'-lycopenal. DU145 cell proliferation was significantly reduced by supra-physiological levels of lycopene and apo-12'-lycopenal, in part, through alteration of the normal cell cycle. Levels of the gap junction protein, connexin 43, were unaltered by lycopene or apo-lycopenal treatment while cell apoptosis rates significantly decreased. We further confirmed that connexin 43 protein levels were unaltered by lycopene treatment in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, or in Dunning R3327-H rat prostate tumor. The present data indicate that lycopene and apo-12'-lycopenal reduce the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, in part, by inhibiting normal cell cycle progression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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