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FEBS J. 2011 Mar;278(5):822-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.08001.x. Epub 2011 Jan 24.

A distinct sequence in the adenine nucleotide translocase from Artemia franciscana embryos is associated with insensitivity to bongkrekate and atypical effects of adenine nucleotides on Ca2+ uptake and sequestration.

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1
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Abstract

Mitochondria isolated from embryos of the crustacean Artemia franciscana lack the Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition pore. Although the composition of the pore described in mammalian mitochondria is unknown, the impacts of several effectors of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) on pore opening are firmly established. Notably, ADP, ATP and bongkrekate delay, whereas carboxyatractyloside hastens, Ca(2+)-induced pore opening. Here, we report that adenine nucleotides decreased, whereas carboxyatractyloside increased, Ca(2+) uptake capacity in mitochondria isolated from Artemia embryos. Bongkrekate had no effect on either Ca(2+) uptake or ADP-ATP exchange rate. Transmission electron microscopy imaging of Ca(2+)-loaded Artemia mitochondria showed needle-like formations of electron-dense material in the absence of adenine nucleotides, and dot-like formations in the presence of adenine nucleotides or Mg(2+). Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy showed the material to be rich in calcium and phosphorus. Sequencing of the Artemia mRNA coding for ANT revealed that it transcribes a protein with a stretch of amino acids in the 198-225 region with 48-56% similarity to those from other species, including the deletion of three amino acids in positions 211, 212 and 219. Mitochondria isolated from the liver of Xenopus laevis, in which the ANT shows similarity to that in Artemia except for the 198-225 amino acid region, demonstrated a Ca(2+)-induced bongkrekate-sensitive permeability transition pore, allowing the suggestion that this region of ANT may contain the binding site for bongkrekate.

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