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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 18;108(3):1140-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1009908108. Epub 2011 Jan 3.

Seasonal influenza infection and live vaccine prime for a response to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine.

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Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


The robust immune response to a single dose of pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine suggests that a large segment of the population has been previously primed. We evaluated the effect of seasonal (s) H1N1 infection, s-trivalent inactivated vaccine (s-TIV), and trivalent s-live attenuated influenza vaccine (s-LAIV) before immunization with a pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccine (p-LAIV) in mice. We compared serum and mucosal antibody and pulmonary CD8 and CD4 responses and the virologic response to challenge with a wild-type 2009 pandemic H1N1 (p-H1N1) virus. Two doses of p-LAIV induced cellular immune and robust ELISA and neutralizing antibody responses that were associated with complete protection from p-H1N1 challenge. A single dose of p-LAIV induced a cellular response and ELISA but not a neutralizing antibody response, and incomplete protection from p-H1N1 virus challenge. Primary infection with s-H1N1 influenza virus followed by a dose of p-LAIV resulted in cross-reactive ELISA antibodies and a robust cellular immune response that was also associated with complete protection from p-H1N1 virus challenge. A lower-magnitude but similar response associated with partial protection was seen in mice that received a dose of s-LAIV followed by p-LAIV. Mice that received a dose of s-TIV followed by p-LAIV did not show any evidence of priming. In summary, prior infection with a seasonal influenza virus or s-LAIV primed mice for a robust response to a single dose of p-LAIV that was associated with protection equivalent to two doses of the matched pandemic vaccine.

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