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Clin Oral Implants Res. 2011 Aug;22(8):826-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2010.02061.x. Epub 2010 Dec 28.

Prevalence of periimplant disease in partially edentulous patients: a practice-based cross-sectional study.

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Dental Practice, Hanau and Alzenau, Germany.



Evaluation of the prevalence rates of periimplant mucositis and periimplantitis in partially edentulous patients in a private dental practice.


The data of 89 patients were collected (52 female, 37 male, age at time of implant placement: 51.8 ± 10.3 years). All patients had been treated with dental implants of the same type and fixed superstructures between January 1999 and June 2006 (observational period: 68.2 ± 24.8 months).


The patient-related prevalence rate of periimplant mucositis (probing depth ≥ 4 mm and bleeding on probing [BOP]) was over all 44.9%. The respective rates in non-smokers without periodontal history were 30.4% and in smokers with periodontal history 80%. The multiple logistic regression analysis identified a significant association of mucositis with the independent variable "smoker" (odds ratio [OR] 3.77; P = 0.023). The patient-related prevalence rate of periimplantitis (probing depth ≥ 5 mm, BOP/pus, radiographic bone loss) was 11.2% (smokers with periodontal history: 53.3%, non-smokers: 2.8%). No periimplant disease was diagnosed in non-smoking patients without periodontal history and with a good compliance after treatment. Statistical analysis identified a significant association of periimplantitis with "smoker" (OR: 31.58; P<0.001) and "compliance" (OR: 0.09; P = 0.011). Periodontal history in general showed no significant association with periimplantitis.


Smoking and compliance are important risk factors for periimplant inflammations in partially edentulous patients.

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