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Opt Express. 2010 Dec 20;18(26):26854-65. doi: 10.1364/OE.18.026854.

The use of India ink in tissue-simulating phantoms.

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Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell'Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze, Italy.


The optical properties of India ink, an absorber often used in preparation of tissue simulating phantoms, have been investigated at visible and near infrared wavelengths. The extinction coefficient has been obtained from measurements of collimated transmittance and from spectrophotometric measurements, the absorption coefficient from multidistance measurements of fluence rate in a diffusive infinite medium with small concentrations of added ink. Measurements have been carried out on samples of India ink from five different brands, and for some brands also from different batches. As also reported in previously published papers the results we have obtained showed large inter-brand and inter-batch variations for both the absorption and the extinction coefficient. On the contrary, our results showed small variations for the ratio between the absorption and the extinction coefficient. The albedo is therefore similar for all samples: The values averaged over all samples investigated were 0.161, 0.115, and 0.115 at ╬╗ = 632.8, 751, and 833 nm respectively, with maximum deviations of 0.044, 0.019, and 0.035. These results indicate that, using the values we have obtained for the albedo, it should be possible to obtain with uncertainty smaller than about 4% the absorption coefficient of a sample of unknown ink from simple measurements of extinction coefficient. A similar accuracy is not easily obtained with the complicated procedures necessary for measurements of absorption coefficient.

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