Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Affect Disord. 2011 Jun;131(1-3):344-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.12.002. Epub 2010 Dec 31.

Chronic posttraumatic stress and its predictors in patients living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

Author information

1
Division of Psychosomatic Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Switzerland.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) show clinically relevant depression and anxiety, but little is known about their levels of posttraumatic stress. We assessed chronic posttraumatic stress attributable to a traumatic cardiac event and its predictors in patients at two time points after ICD placement.

METHODS:

We investigated 107 consecutively enrolled patients (57 ± 14 years, 62% men) on average 24 ± 21 months after ICD placement (baseline) and again 41 ± 18 months later (follow-up). All patients completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) to self-rate the severity of posttraumatic stress (range 0-110). The 30% of patients with the highest IES-R scores (≥ 25) at baseline were defined as PTSD cases; the same threshold was applied to define PTSD caseness at follow-up.

RESULTS:

Posttraumatic stress increased from baseline to follow-up (19 ± 22 vs. 25 ± 19, p < 0.001); 19% of patients had PTSD at both assessments, 12% at baseline only, and 18% at follow-up only. Female gender as well as greater peritraumatic dissociation and depression predicted greater posttraumatic stress at baseline (p-values ≤ 0.041). Greater baseline posttraumatic stress, helplessness, alexithymia, and ≥ 5 shocks during follow-up all predicted greater posttraumatic stress at follow-up (p-values ≤ 0.029). Female gender, helplessness, and depression predicted PTSD at baseline (p-values ≤ 0.022); low education and posttraumatic stress at baseline predicted PTSD at follow-up (p-values ≤ 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS:

Between 2 and 5.5 years post-ICD placement chronic posttraumatic stress slightly increased and nearly one-fifth of patients had newly developed PTSD. The identified psychological predictors of long-term chronicity of posttraumatic stress might particularly inform behavioral interventions for ICD recipients.

PMID:
21195483
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2010.12.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center